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The Ancient Spartans Had a Murderous Secret Police
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The Ancient Spartans Had a Murderous Secret Police

If 300 taught us anything, it's that the Spartans were a hardy and courageous group. But they weren't the nicest to their own people, punishing young people brutally for infractions, and even utilizing the youth as a secret service! Meet the krypteia, a sort of Hitler Youth of Sparta. When a Training Procedure Goes Really, Really Wrong According to ancient sources, the krypteia were as vicious as they came.

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Kitchen Cabinet-Origin of the Political Term

The Kitchen Cabinet was a mocking term applied to an official circle of advisers to President Andrew Jackson. The term has endured through many decades, and now generally refers to a politician's informal circle of advisers. When Jackson came into office after the bruising election of 1828, he was very distrustful of official Washington.
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Bien dans Sa Peau: French Expression Explained

The French expression Bien dans sa peau (pronounced [byeh(n) da(n) sa po]) literally translates to "well in one's skin" and is used to mean content, comfortable, or at ease with oneself. Its register is normal. Explanation and Examples The French expression bien dans sa peau can be used with être or se sentir and with different subjects and possessive adjectives: je suis bien dans ma peau , es-tu bien dans ta peau ?
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Globalization's Eclipse of the Nation-State

Globalization can be defined by five main criteria: internationalization, liberalization, universalization, Westernization, and deterritorialization. Internationalization is where nation states are now considered less important as their power is diminishing. Liberalization is the concept where numerous trade barriers have been removed, creating freedom of movement.
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Exercise in Using the Correct Forms of Irregular Verbs

This exercise will give you practice in using the correct forms of irregular verbs. Before attempting the exercise, you may find it helpful to review these two articles: Exercise Complete each sentence below with the appropriate present, past, or past-participle form of the irregular verb in italics.
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Understanding Validity in Sociology

In sociology and research terms, internal validity is the degree to which an instrument, such as a survey question, measures what it is intended to measure while external validity refers to the ability of results of an experiment to be generalized beyond the immediate study. True validity comes when both the instruments used and the results of experiments themselves are found to be accurate each time an experiment is conducted; as a result, all data that is found to be valid must be considered reliable, which means it must be capable of being repeated across multiple experiments.
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How to Make Powdered Olive Oil

Molecular gastronomy applies science to put a modern spin on traditional foods. For this simple recipe, combine maltodextrin powder with olive oil or any other flavorful oil or melted fat to make a powdered oil. Maltodextrin is a carbohydrate powder derived from starch that dissolves the instant it hits your mouth.
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How to Let Your College Crush Know You Like Them

Had your eye on that crush for a little while, and ready to at least see if that person's feelings for you are the same? You may be terrified, but you also may be at the point where you'd just rather take the step than keep things in the unknown. If you're not sure where to start, consider these ways to let your college crush know you like them.
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Regime, Regimen, and Regiment: How to Choose the Right Word

Don't be confused by older senses of the words regime, regimen , and regiment. In present-day English, these words have fairly distinct meanings. How to Use Regime The noun regime (pronounced "ruh-zheem" and occasionally spelled with an accent, régime ) primarily refers to a form of government or a period of time that a person or governing body is in power.
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Walt Whitman: Spirituality and Religion in Whitman's Song of Myself

Spirituality is a mixed bag for the great American poet, Walt Whitman. While he takes a great deal of material from Christianity, his conception of religion is much more complicated than the beliefs of one or two faiths mixed together. Whitman seems to draw from the many roots of belief to form his own religion, putting himself at the center.
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Daily Mandarin Lesson: "What" in Chinese

Learning how to say "what" in Chinese is a very helpful vocabulary word that will enable you to ask and understand questions. The Chinese term for “what” is 甚麼 written traditionally, or 什么 written in simplified form. In Mandarin Chinese, its pinyin is "shénme." Most commonly used as a question word, 甚麼 / 什么 can also be used in certain statements.
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Should the U.S. Census Count Undocumented Immigrants?

The millions of undocumented immigrants living and often working in the United States are counted in the decennial U.S. census. Should they be? As currently required by law, the U.S. Census Bureau attempts to count all persons in the U.S. living in residential structures, including prisons, dormitories, and similar "group quarters" in the official decennial census.
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MtDNA Testing for Genealogy

Maternal DNA, referred to as mitochondrial DNA or mtDNA, is passed down from mothers to their sons and daughters. It is only carried through the female line, however, so while a son inherits his mother's mtDNA, he does not pass it down to his own children. Both men and women can have their mtDNA tested in order to trace their maternal lineage.
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Facts about Class Identity in Feudal Japan

Feudal Japan had a four-tiered social structure based on the principle of military preparedness. At the top were the daimyo and their samurai retainers. Three varieties of commoners stood below the samurai: farmers, craftsmen, and merchants. Other people were excluded entirely from the hierarchy, and assigned to unpleasant or unclean duties such as leather tanning, butchering animals and executing condemned criminals.
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When Does a Snowstorm Become a Blizzard?

Every year, as the snow begins to fall, people start tossing around the word blizzard. It doesn't matter if the forecast is calling for one inch or one foot; it is referred to as a blizzard. But what exactly makes a snowstorm a blizzard? And how is it different from your average winter weather? As is the case with most weather phenomenon, there are strict parameters that define what truly is a blizzard.
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History of Ecuador's San Francisco De Quito

The city of San Francisco de Quito (generally simply called Quito) is the capital of Ecuador and the second-largest city in the nation after Guayaquil. It is centrally located on a plateau high in the Andes Mountains. The city has a long and interesting history dating from pre-Colombian times to the present.
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Should You Use an Immigration Consultant?

Immigration consultants provide immigration assistance. This can include services such as assistance with filing applications and petition, helping to gather required documentation or translation. An Immigration Consultant Is Not the Same as an Immigration Attorney There is no certification process in the United States to become an immigration consultant, which means there is no standard that U.
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Understanding Object Pronoun Verb Order in French

Mistakes will always be made in French, and now you can learn from them. There are two kinds of object pronouns, direct and indirect. Beginning students of French tend to misplace them and the result can be nonsense to the French ear. The rule of thumb: Place object pronouns before the verb, with the indirect going before the direct object pronoun.
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Why You Should Use Reusable Shopping Bags

The next time the clerk at your favorite grocery store asks whether you prefer “paper or plastic” for your purchases, consider giving the truly eco-friendly response and saying, “neither.” Plastic bags end up as litter that fouls the landscape and kill thousands of marine animals every year that mistake the floating bags for food.
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French Grammar Glossary: Future Subjunctive Is Present Subjunctive

There is no future subjunctive in French. The present subjunctive is used for both present and future. There is no future subjunctive per se. Even if the action is to happen in the future, the present subjunctive is used. However, there is a past subjunctive. Present Subjunctive Is Used for Both Present and Future In general, the French subjunctive mood is used to express actions or ideas that are subjective or otherwise uncertain: will/wanting, emotion, doubt, possibility, necessity, judgment.
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History of the Thermometer

Lord Kelvin invented the Kelvin Scale in 1848 used on thermometers. The Kelvin Scale measures the ultimate extremes of hot and cold. Kelvin developed the idea of absolute temperature, what is called the "Second Law of Thermodynamics", and developed the dynamical theory of heat. In the 19th century, scientists were researching what was the lowest temperature possible.
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