The participle is a verbal adjective and very close to the noun. It owes its name to the fact that participates (in Latin partem capit, that takes part) to these categories. In Italian he has two stages, the present and the past.
- The uses of the present participle as a verb (steering wheel, dormant, remaining) are infrequent in the Romance languages, which forms typically have the function of adjectives and nouns.
- Imperative for their voice systems is instead the past (ex .: flown, slept, left), which is evident in the formation of compound tenses as the recent past.
- Different languages like Latin also have a form of the future.
The Italian Present Participle
In Latin the present participle was once rarely irregular, so this regularity has also been transferred in Italian. It is formed in this way: the endings of the infinitive are replaced by those of the present participle (-ante, -ente -ente.)
- Irregular forms part, counterproductive, nulladicente, contractor etc. follow the peculiarity of the imperfect indicative;
- For shapes in -iente, please refer to the item on the third conjugation: participles in -iente.
This verbal form generally replaces a relative clause, as the examples:
- Abbiamo qui una scatola contenente diversi oggetti piccolissimi ('che contiene');
- Si tratta di un uccello proveniente dall'Africa ('che proviene');
- Questa è una parola derivante dal latino ('che deriva').
Form of the verb itself, the present participle is rare. More often, the verb in the present participle gives rise to nouns (assistant, teacher, caregiver) or adjectives (heavy, irritating, missing), all cases in which gender is invariable (both male and female). Sometimes can form adverbs (as in, the last word). The derivation process may have originated much during the development of the Italian language, as in the days of the Latin. Survive, including the direct inheritance from Latin, of the type phrases like it or not, even as the words formed from a Latin verb or fallen into disuse:
- absent from absentem, present participle, see abesse Latin verb ('be absent')
- This present participle formed according to the procedure unlike the previous
- Still, composed not by obstantem, present participle, see obstare Latin verb ('be opposed')
In these cases, it is not uncommon that the verb of departure is almost unrecognizable, both in form and in meaning.
Returning typically use more verbal, it must be said that in the past was seen much more frequently, as evidenced by various literary sources created during the history of Italian literature. The use form of the verb survives primarily in texts particularly articulated, products in often formal:
- I contribuenti aventi diritto ad un rimborso dovranno rivolgersi alla banca.
Where the nominal style is taken to the extreme (with extreme elaboration of the statement), the present participle is occasionally used to generate a compound shape: in fact using a construct obtained with the present of the auxiliary verb have and the past participle the verb to be conjugated. The result will be something like:
- Saranno invitati i soci aventi partecipato alle sessioni dell'anno precedente.
In this case, aventi partecipato represents what in a subordinate clause explicit should be indicated with a relative to the past (that participated), here of a sort of linguistic calque that generates a verbal form non-existent in the system. Compared to participants, the difference lies in the fact that the action is considered to be accomplished. It is syntactic structures of luxury, especially popular in Italian bureaucracy, which often prevents combine to make room instead of ways as the participle and the gerund. A comparable form obtained with the auxiliary be not possible since in these cases the Italian grammar already provides for use of the past participle.
The Italian Past Participle
The Italian past participle is derived directly from the Latin that was once very irregular, since it stemmed from a subject other than that of the present, that of his back.
FORMATION OF THE PAST PARTICIPLE
In Italian the past participle, along with the remote past is the time more irregular. Forms regular endings of the infinitive are replaced by those of the past participle (-ato, -uto -ito.) 1st conjugation -are eg. sing 2nd -ere eg. contain 3rd -ire eg. act past participle -ato (sung) -uto (content) -ito (acted)
The verb to be is defective and the past participle form the compound tenses with participle of the verb be (state).
As regards the position of pronouns unstressed, see the section other projects.
Almost all the Italian verbs of the first conjugation (-are) is regular. The only exception is the verb do, which originally belonged to the second. The form of the past participle is made, which also feature several compounds (counterfeit> counterfeit).
Verbs of the Italian verbs second conjugation (-ere) are typically irregular. To distinguish the conjugation is divided into two classes, derived from the second and third Latin conjugation.
Verbs in -ere with the vowel and then with the penultimate stressed syllable (as Will) are generally smooth (keep> held); there is no shortage, however, exceptions:
past participle in -s (Opinion> appeared, assert> earned); -I'm in the past participle (remain> left, see> seen);
As for verbs in -ere with unstressed vowel and then with emphasis on the third last syllable (like writing) regular shapes are few. The main forms are:
- past participle in -s (melt> zone);
- past participle in -sso (grant> granted);
- past participle in -to (live> lived);
- past participle in -tto (break> broken);
- -I'm in the past participle (place> place).
The Italian verbs of the third conjugation (-ire) are generally regular. The exceptions are:
- verbs in -consonante + rire form the past participle in -erto (open> open, s) offer> (s) offered);
- verbs in -vocale + rire form the past participle in -rso (appear> appeared);
- others are totally irregular verbs (die> dead come> came).
DEFECTIVE VERBS AND SPECIAL CASES
They may be missing, in so-called defective verbs, forms of verbs as compete, diverge, exempt, itch, screeching. As for the verb shine, we shined the participle is now disused. Other times you have two forms (happen> succeeded, success).
- The verb happen has two forms with different meanings, a regular succeeded (= substitute) and uneven success (= happen).
- Similarly provide participles has two different meanings: provided (= supplied) and done (= it has done so).
- Similarly the verb reflect has two participles of different meaning: thought (= meditated) and reflection (= mirrored).
- The verb bisognare has the past participle (have been necessary), but the formation of compound tenses is abandoned, especially if used in an impersonal way (eg. It been necessary to go).
The Italian Past Participle In Conjugation
The past participle is used primarily for the formation of compound tenses as the past tense or past perfect, in combination with the auxiliary verb essere or avere (I went; I ate). Its proximity to the category of adjective is confirmed by the fact that the conjugated forms with be, like the adjective, should be tuned to the number and gender of the subject to which they refer.
Combined with the auxiliary be and come, forms of the past participle of transitive verbs are used to form the bottom: The mouse was eaten; you have not been criticized. Also in this case, the forms should be tuned for gender and number to the subject.
There are no female or plural forms of verbs that, despite being intransitive, are married to have (lunch, gossiping).
For rules and linguistic doubts on the agreement of the participle (Lucio left me / a, the cream that you have mounted / a, I have not forgotten / a), see chapter on the formation of the recent past.
The Italian Past Participle In Subordinate Clauses
A specific use of this verb form is found also in the subordination implied. This means that the form of the past participle is replacing a verb.
- Uscita di casa, Sara si è guardata intorno.
is therefore equivalent to:
- Dopo che era uscita di casa, Sara si è guardata intorno.
The advantage of this construct is the enormous simplification of the statement.
Verbal forms of the participle in the subordinate clause (left home) indicates prior art temporal than that indicated in the main clause (the action indicated by the verb is therefore out front than to look).
The function of the participle in the alternative is often to allow the formation of a temporal proposition, as shown in the example just illustrated. In addition to this type of secondary phrase, the past participle can be used with other meanings; remembers the first relative clause implied:
- Sono state ritrovate le scarpe della ragazza uccisa la settimana scorsa.
The subject would otherwise be exposed to a whole implicit explicit subject (la ragazza che era stata uccisa).
The past participle is also used in the causal proposition implied:
- Provocata, la scimmia ha morso l'ospite dello zoo.
where provocata is caused by siccome era stata provocata.
There is also a feature of the past participle in the sentence concessiva:
- Pur se provocata ripetutamente, la scimmia non ha morso l'ospite dello zoo.
The construct is much simpler than type structures Malgrado fosse stata provocata ripetutamente, la scimmia non ha morso l'ospite dello zoo.
The Italian Past Participle in Word Formation
As mentioned, the participle a close fit to the categories of adjective and verb form of adjectives, the past participle is widespread. It may make sense passive (wrong answer; a failed project, a written request) or active (the dead rat).
The past participle is also quite common in the formation of nouns: the shock, the scolding, the delegate, the fact, the mass, the state, the race, the course (derived from verb to noun).
Often, the words in question are directly derived from the past participle of the Latin form.
Also derived from the past participle suffixes -ata and -ato, used for forming words from noun to noun. For example, next to the noun we find the clown antics: female, it is derived indicating mostly action (nudge,) or its result (the spaghetti, the peppers); This contrasts rather a state or a charge masculine nouns formed with the suffix -ato (Marquis, celibacy, protectorate).