History of Tacoma - History

History of Tacoma - History

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Harbor tug Tacoma, often misspelled Takoma, was renamed Sebago (q.v.) in December 1899 to free the name Tacoma for a protected cruiser scheduled to be constructed.


(Cruiser No. 18: dp. 3,200 (n.); 1. 308'6"; b. 44'0" (wl.); dr. 15'9" (mean); s. 16.58 k. (tl.); cpl. 309; a. 10 5" blr., 3 6-pdr. r., 2 3-pdrs.; cl. Denver)

The second Tacoma (Cruiser No. 18) was laid down on 27 September 1900 at Mare Island, Calif., by the Union Iron Works; launched on 2 June 1903; sponsored by Miss Julia M. Harris; and commissioned on 30 January 1904, Comdr. R. F. Nicholson in command.

Following a post-commissioning visit to her namesake city, Tacoma, Wash., the protected cruiser voyaged to Hawaii in April and May. She returned to San Francisco on 2 June and, a month later, sailed for Cape Horn. During the voyage, she participated in the search for merchant ship SS Conemaugh, which had departed from Valparaiso, Chile, and vanished. After rounding the Horn and steaming up the Atlantic coast of South and North America, Tacoma entered New York harbor on 5 November and remained there until joining the North Atlantic Fleet on New Year's Day 1905.

Following the completion of maneuvers off Culebra Island on 25 January, Tacoma sailed for Hispaniola where she performed special duty protecting American interests during: one of the many periods of turmoil that have troubled that island. Following that assignment, Tacoma conducted tar~et practice off the Florida coast between 27 March and 26 April. She returned to New York on 19 May to prepare for a voyage to Europe.

On 18 June, she sailed for France and arrived at Cherbourg on 30 June. She remained there while a battalion of sailors went to Paris to participate in ceremonies honoring the remains of John Paul Jones which were being returned to the United States. On 8 July, Tacoma departed Cherbourg to escort the remains to their final resting place at Annapolis, Md. After the ceremony at the United States Naval Academy on 24 July, the warship proceeded to Tompkinsville, N.Y. On 5 August, she embarked Japanese diplomats at New York and transported them to Sagamore Hill, President Theodore Roosevelt's summer home at Oyster Bay, N.Y. There, they first met the Russian commissioners for the peace negotiations which were later held at Portsmouth, N.H., and resulted in the termination of the Russo Japanese War. Tacoma returned to Philadelphia on the 8th and conducted training for the Pennsylvania and Massachusetts naval militias before rejoining the North Atlantic Fleet for operations in the Caribbean Sea

Deployed to the Mediterranean for the first five months of 1906, the ship visited Tangier, Algiers, Villefranche, Naples, and Genoa. After a trip to Grand Canary Island, she returned to the Mediterranean and visited Alexandria and Port Said before returning to the United States in June.

For the next 10 years, except for an eight-month period in reserve at Philadelphia in 1911 and 1912, Tacoma alternated service along the east coast with cruises to the Caribbean and West Indies protecting American citizens and interests there during this turbulent period. In late 1906 and early 1907, Cuba was the major trouble spot; and the cruiser operated along her coasts from late September until mid-November and again from late December until June, visiting Havana Tunas, Manzanilla, Santiago de Cuba, Cienfuegos, and Guantanamo Bay. She returned to the West Indies again in the spring of 1908 for stops at St. Thomas, St. Christopher, Martinique, Margarita Island, Port Mochima, Cunama, La Guaira, and Curacso. During the second half of 1908 and the first half of 1909, she observed political conditions in Haiti and Honduras. From July to September of 1909, the cruiser operated off Nicaragua. Later, her itinerary included a visit to Costa Rica and a return to Honduras, all in an effort to bring the steadying influence of American military power to the volatile Latin American republics.

Between January and March of 1910, Tacoma cruised off the coast of Nicaragua and visited the Canal Zone and Costa Rica. After a spring voyage to the east coast of the United States, the ship headed back to Central America to protect United States interests there. During the following nine months, she visited Panama, Honduras, Costa Rica, Nicaragua, and Guatemala. In January 1911, pursuant to the orders of the senior naval officer present embarked in Marietta, Tacoma prevented the converted yacht Hornet from participatmg in the Honduran revolution. Later that month, she landed a force of bluejackets at Puerto Cortez, Honduras, to protect American citizens. In February, her deck was the scene of a peace conference conducted by special commissioner T. C. Dawson. The negotiations brought the revolution to a close and established a new provisional government in Honduras. That summer, Tacoma steamed-via Puerto Mexico and Galveston-to New York. She remained at the New York Navy Yard until mid November when she went into reserve at Philadelphia.

In July 1912, Tacoma came out of reserve and was soon on her way back to the troubled waters of the Gulf of Mexico. Late that month, a revolution broke out in Nicaragua and lasted until November. The cruiser patrolled almost incessantly off the Nicaraguan coast at Bluefields and at Great Corn Island from 3 August to 25 October. In November, she headed-via Tampico, Mexico, and Galveston, Tex.—for the navy yard at Boston where she remained through mid-February 1913. By the 22d, she was back patrolling and observing, this time along the coasts of Honduras and Guatemala. The ship returned to New York in July; then operated off the Mexican coast. She cruised off Tampico and Vera

Cruz until January 1914 when she returned to the east coast of the United States for repairs.

Tacoma resumed operations in Mexican waters early in May in the wake of the Tampico Incident and the resultant seizure of the customs house at Vera Cruz. The warship cruised the Mexican coast through September during the latter stages of the Huerta-Carranza struggle and while the new Carranza government consolidated its power against former allies, notably Pancho Villa and Emiliano Zapata.

Late in September 1914, Tacoma departed the Mexican coast; steamed, via Jamaica and Cuba, to Haiti, and patrolled off Cape Haitien until early December. After a visit to the Canal Zone, the cruiser returned to Haiti in February, then moved to Santo Domingo in March. On the 21st, she entered the Portsmouth (N.H.) Navy Yard for repairs.

While at Portsmouth, Tacoma was placed in reserve. On 19 May 1916, she shifted to Boston, Mass., where she served as receiving ship. On 1 December, she again was placed in full commission. She made another voyage to Mexican waters for patrol duty from January to April of 1917. Upon the entry of the United States into World War I, Tacoma returned to the Atlantic seaboard to prepare for convoy duty. During the war, she made five round trips to Europe protecting troop and supply convoys. While returning to the United States from her third voyage to Europe, she stopped at Halifax, Nova Scotia just when an ammunition explosion in the Belgian relief ship Mont Blanc severely damaged the town. Tacoma assisted in relief work, and for three days, the cruiser's officers and men worked diligently to help the devastated port community.

At the end of the war, the cruiser joined the Pacific Squadron and served with it until 1920. Early that year, she returned to her old duty of encouraging stability in the perennially volatile Caribbean. As a unit of the Special Service Squadron, which was ordered to observe events in Latin America and the Caribbean and to protect American interests in those areas, Tacoma patrolled the isthmian coast until January 1924. During that time, she was redesignated a light cruiser, CL-20. During a heavy storm on 16 January, the warship ran aground on Blanquilla Reef near Vera Cruz. For almost a week, her crew tried without success to free her, her captain and three crewmen drowning in those attempts. After a board of inquiry, the Navy struck her name from the Navy list on 7 February 1924. She was sold to R. Sebastian of the American Consulate at Vera Cruz on 6 September 1924.

Tacoma's Haunted History

Tacoma hides in the shadows of Seattle, but what hides in the shadows of Tacoma? The city’s paranormal history is riddled with Native American culture, spiritualists, mysterious deaths, tragedy, and curses that dwell in the dark. Much of Tacoma is built directly on top of sacred lands, and many natives to the area can attest that the city is haunted by its past. Desecration of graves can leave troubling results. Hexed citizens can perish. An untimely death can leave behind a soul. These unfortunate circumstances bring forth tales of the strange and unexplainable. Are we alone in Tacoma or accompanied by ghosts of the past?

“Tacoma native Ross Allison is a modern day ghost hunter. . . . [He] said that Tacoma’s haunted past hasn’t generated that same kind of attention that Seattle’s has, but he’s hoping to change that by sharing more South Sound stories.” —Q13Fox

E-kitap hakkında daha fazla bilgi

Yayınevi: Arcadia Publishing
Yayın Tarihi: 2018-10-20
ISBN: 9781439647301

Railroad Assists Industrial Development

The railroad increased Tacoma's industrial development. Coal mines were opened and Tacoma became the major coaling station on the Pacific Coast. The lumber industry expanded while new industries included a flour mill, a salmon cannery, and machine shops. The town continued to grow, and with a population of 4,400 residents, Tacoma was incorporated in 1884. During the following year a group of residents, who blamed Chinese workers for an employment recession that came with the completion of the railroad, formed the Law and Order League and forcibly deported the Chinese. The insurgents were tried in court but were later acquitted.

On June 21, 1940, Velma Crismon (b. circa 1924), a student at Lincoln High School in Tacoma, types 113 words per minute at the International Typewriting Contest in Chicago, setting a new world record for high school students. She uses an early IBM electric typewriter with a keyboard patented by August Dvorak (1894-1975). A longtime education professor at the University of Washington, Dvorak is an efficiency researcher and has developed the keyboard in response to a request to analyze persistent errors among typing students.

A Competitive Keyboard

American speed typing competitions began in the early twentieth century, serving as promotional opportunities for competing typewriter brands. The first of the Chicago international contests was in 1906. It was won by 17-year-old Rose L. Fritz (1888-1959?), at 82 words per minute, and it made her a trans-Atlantic celebrity. The Prince of Wales, later King George V (1865-1936), asked her to autograph a letter she typed for him. Fast typists with a bit of flair could move beyond secretarial work and newspaper dictation into showmanship -- typing blindfolded, typing without finger protection in freezing weather, typing with mittens in warmer weather, typing on a metal drum to simulate the sound of a speeding train.

Dvorak was an education professor at the University of Washington with an interest in workplace efficiency when he got a request from a typing teacher. She wanted to know why typists tended to misspell a consistent list of short, familiar words. Dvorak used time-and-motion studies to determine that the issue was the placement of letters on the standard QWERTY keyboard. Users had to make unnecessary movements to spell many common words, leading to avoidable errors. He decided to come up with something better. Working with his brother-in-law, William Learned Dealey (1891-1986), he designed and patented a keyboard that grouped the most common letters and letter combinations to streamline finger motion.

The Dvorak Gospel

The University of Washington tried out his method in its typing classes, and Dvorak persuaded the Tacoma School District to teach it to 400 of its junior high students. They learned easily and typed fast. Some alumni of these programs became typing teachers themselves and spread the Dvorak gospel around the region, in turn producing many of the early contest champions.

During the period between 1933, when Dvorak and his disciples began teaching the system in the Pacific Northwest, and 1946, when the official contests ended, converts to the Dvorak keyboard set 26 international records. One reason so many competed was that Dvorak paid for many of their trips as a promotion of his system. "Between 1933 and 1941 he spent most of his university salary and the bulk of two small inheritances, about $40,000 in all, promoting his system" (Morgan, 12).

Speed on the Keys

Eight of the international records were set by Lenore Fenton (1912-2005), a University of Washington graduate from Snohomish. She reached an unofficial 182 words per minute using Dvorak's system. In 1943 she made a series of Navy training films on typing and later wrote an instruction book: Typing Techniques and Shortcuts. She donated her IBM Electromatic typewriter with a Dvorak keyboard to the Smithsonian Institution, where it appeared in a 1992 exhibit and slide show called "The Case Against QWERTY."

Olive Dalin (1917-2006), another Tacoman and Lincoln High School graduate, said the Dvorak keyboard she used at her job with the Bureau of Internal Revenue was almost too fast. "I can't slow down. If I work in a federal office where, say, the quota is 300 forms a day I end up doing a thousand. Then all the other girls are mad at me. So I try to adjust by speed by stopping and fixing my hair, or going out for coffee. Then the boss is mad at me" (Morgan, 3).

Crismon disappeared from public records after her four-trophy outing, perhaps in part because the competitions were suspended during the World War II years.

Velma Crismon, June 21, 1940

Detail of Chicago Tribune historical photo, fair use

Typewriter keyboard, patent 2,040,248 by A. Dvorak, May 21, 1932

August Dvorak and typing class, University of Washington, November 14, 1932

A History of the Toyota Tacoma

The Toyota Tacoma has evolved along with its size since it was first introduced in 1995. Not only has the Tacoma gone from a compact pickup to a mid-size pickup, but it has also become more powerful and more sophisticated over the years. What you’ll find at a Toyota dealer is a stylish and powerful truck that has gone through two decades of improvements and refinement — and you’ll find it at a great price!

Understanding the Tacoma’s history helps you understand the quality workmanship and design that the current model represents. Here’s a brief look back at the history of the Toyota Tacoma:

First Generation

The Toyota Tacoma was first introduced a couple of months into 1995 as a replacement for the Toyota Hilux, which was also known simply as Toyota Pickup. The Hilux was discontinued in the United States, but it still continues to be produced for international marketplaces, including South America and Thailand. The Hilux had been produced in America since 1968 before being discontinued.

The Tacoma was intended to improve the ride quality that the Hilux offered, as well as to improve handling, comfort and safety. Meanwhile, the Hilux was designed to be a rugged and powerful ride, though not necessarily a comfortable one. The size and the features of the new Tacoma were targeted to drivers who would use their pickup trucks as personal vehicles, as well, instead of for commercial or industrial use.

The Tacoma was introduced after five years of development, and it came as either a two-wheel drive or four-wheel drive truck and offered three engine options. The base model came with a 2.4-liter four-cylinder that put out 142 horse power and 160 pounds per feet of torque. Upgrades included a 2.7-liter four-cylinder that put out 150 horse power and 177 pounds per feet of torque and a 3.4-liter V6 that put out 190 horse power and 220 pounds per feet of torque. The base model was fuel efficient for a pickup, offering 29 mpg on the highway.

The base model and V6 engine were both offered in two-wheel drive, and they both included automatic or manual transmission options. These options changed over the years, with options such as crew cabs and new suspension.

The Tacoma was a success right out of the gate, and younger buyers formed its core market. Over the next 10 years, the first generation underwent a number of changes to both the design and the mechanics.

In 1997, a prerunner version was introduced that shared the same styling, engine options and suspension of the 4ࡪ models introduced that year. The Prerunner Tacoma came with an optional off-roading package for those who still wanted the power and durability of the previous Toyota pickup models, as well as the comfort and ride quality that the Tacoma offered.

The Tacoma underwent minor face lifts in 1996 and 1997, including changes to the grille, tailgate badging, head lights, and engines. Under the hood, the Tacoma got new rear leaf springs and a coil-on-plug ignition. A passenger side air bag was also added.

In 2000, the Tacoma got another face lift and offered an S-Runner trim package that came with a 3.4-liter V6 engine, a five-speed manual transmission, 16-inch alloy wheels, and gas shocks. Only a couple hundred of the package were sold over the next four years, so this model has become a bit of a collector’s item thanks to its rarity.

A crew cab was also introduced in 2000. The crew cab had four doors, but the extended cab came with only two doors. The extended cab had a longer bed than the crew cab, 6 foot compared to 5-foot-5-inches.

The Tacoma continued to gain in sales over the years during its first generation. By 2004, it was outselling the Dodge Dakota and the Nissan Frontier. In 2005, it was named Truck of the Year by Motor Trend Magazine.

Second Generation

The second generation of the Toyota Tacoma was introduced in 1995, and it ran through the current model year. The 2016 model will introduce the third generation.

The new generation of the Tacoma grew to a mid-size pickup, and it included a plethora of options, including two engines, four transmissions, three cabs (regular, access cab and double cab), and two bed lengths (6 foot or 5 foot), for a total of 18 configurations.

The two engine choices were a 2.7-liter 2TR-FE four-cylinder that put out 159 horse power and 180 pounds per feet of torque and a 4.0-liter 1GR-FE V6 engine that put out 236 horse power and 266 pounds per feet of torque. The transmission options were a four-speed automatic, five-speed automatic, five-speed manual, and six-speed manual.

An X-runner trim level was also introduced with the second generation. It included the 4.0-liter engine with the six-speed manual transmission, an upgraded suspension package, and 18-inch alloy wheels. Other features included down-hill assist control, hill-start assist control, optional rear-locking differential, and an optional off-roading package.

The new Tacoma also featured bed upgrades, such as a deck rail system, tie down cleats, hook pins, and storage boxes. The off-road package also included a power outlet in the bed.

Many more features were added over the following years. Some of the optional features on the 2005 model were made standard the following year, and additional interior colors were added the year after that. Extra safety features were added in 2009, and the Tacoma received a face lift that year. Some of the design changes included a revised grille, new LED tail lights, and smoked head lights. The model also came with four new exterior colors and some new interior features.

Another refresh came in 2012, when the Tacoma got a new grille, head lights, front bumper, hood, and shark fin antenna. The interior was also revamped, and some features were added, such as satellite radio.

A touch-screen audio system was introduced in 2013, and an SR trim was added in 2014. The 2015 models were introduced without a regular cab, which beefed up the Tacoma’s profile even more.

Numerous safety features were added to the Tacoma throughout the second generation. A rollover sensor was added in 2008 to deploy side curtain airbags during a rollover. The Star Safety System was introduced in 2009, and some features included traction and stability control. Side torso air bags for the front row and side curtain air bags for both rows also became standard.

Third Generation

Toyota is currently working on developing the 2016 Tacoma, which will introduce the third generation of the truck.

The 2016 Toyota Tacoma was previewed at the 2015 Detroit Auto Show in January. It features an updated exterior look, with a larger grille, more powerful head lights, an air dam, an infused spoiler, and a redesigned bed. The new Tacoma will have a 2.7-liter Inline4 engine and a six-speed automatic or five-speed manual in the base model. An upgraded 3.5-liter V6 engine will also be available with a six-speed manual or automatic transmission. The body of the truck will feature high-strength steel for better performance and a lower weight, which should improve fuel efficiency. The suspension has also been upgraded for better off-road performance.

Five trim levels will be available on the 2016 Toyota Tacoma. Only the Access Cab and Double Cab will be offered.

Interior upgrades include soft-touch materials instead of plastic, a bigger touch screen display, a new instrument panel, and better insulating to improve ride quality. Dual-climate control will also be introduced for the first time. A terrain-select mode will also be introduced for the first time in the TRD trim.

The 2016 Toyota Tacoma should be available in a couple of months at your local NH Toyota dealer. Visit Irwin Toyota today to test drive the current model Tacoma or to learn more about the 2016 model as information becomes available.

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Reclaiming the Lost History of Tacoma’s Japantown

On a sunny day in Tacoma in 1935, a young Japanese man might wake up in the hotel run by his mother in downtown Tacoma while his dad works in a sawmill down on the tideflats, pick up an apple from one of the many Japanese fruit stands on his way to Stadium High School, then head back downtown to attend two hours of Japanese Language School and make plans to go down to Tokyo Beach on the weekend, assuming he didn’t have to work at one of the handful of markets down on South Tacoma Way. This young man would have been taught not only the Japanese language at the school, but also Japanese culture and the fact that though his heritage is Japanese, he is by birthright, an American first and his every action is not simply his behavior, but a reflection of the entire Japanese American community. This is a world that existed in my hometown of Tacoma, Washington and I did not know anything about it until I read Lisa M. Hoffman and Mary L. Hanneman’s new book, Becoming Nisei: Japanese American Urban Lives in Prewar Tacoma.

I knew nothing about it because in 1942 this community was destroyed forever by FDR’s Executive Order 9066 which put coastal Japanese in concentration camps and scattered their communities. In 2004 the Tacoma Japanese Language School (TJLS) building was demolished to make way for more space for the Tacoma campus of the University of Washington. Hoffman and Hanneman recognized that a piece of history was being lost and sought to excavate and preserve the history of that building and the individuals who lived their lives around it.

What makes Becoming Nisei so compelling is that the authors are not content to simply label individuals in the community and instead recognize that the experience of life is a fluid one and that people and cultures change over time. This coupled with their focus on the physical space in which this history occurred results in what feels like a holistic anthropology in which the focus of the community is brought into context.

After reading Becoming Nisei, I was intrigued and inspired. I had questions about the authors, their research, and their approach to dredging up a piece of Tacoma history that had been intentionally erased. Lisa M. Hoffman and Mary L. Hanneman were kind enough to take time out of their busy schedules at the University of Washington to indulge me. Here they are:

– Can you both tell us about your backgrounds and how you became interested in this project?

Lisa: I am trained as a cultural anthropologist and have done the majority of my research in China, but I also have explored issues in the US as well. Much of my work is focused on the relationship between subjectivity and spatiality, or people-making and place-making. So, when I heard that the TJLS was being torn down and how it was a central institution and place for the prewar Japanese American community, I was intrigued by the spatial questions related to this social history. That is why I became interested in the project. As Mary and I did more research, my own understanding of what it meant to “become Nisei” became much more nuanced.

Mary: My Ph.D. is in modern Japanese history, ca. 1850-early 1900s. I am interested in Japan’s modernization and how the process of industrialization and military modernization in the late 19th century impacted Japanese ideas about their national identity and national character. My own interest in the project evolved, but I was interested in questions about how the Japanese immigrant experience of going to a new place mirrored the ways in which Japan as a nation also found itself in a new place, a new world, after it emerged from centuries of national isolation in the 1860s—and faced a sense of “Now what?” and “Who are we? What do we want to become?”

– What was the most difficult part of researching Becoming Nisei?

LISA: The most difficult part was how long it took to get this book completed. We are deeply regretful that more of the Nisei are not able to read it.

MARY: Indeed, the biggest obstacle was just being able to focus on the project together—there were many interruptions over the years. The “easiest” part was interviewing the Nisei, as they were wonderfully open to the project, though looking back on our interviews, there are many things I think we would have/could have done differently, including what questions we asked.

– The Nisei are often called ‘the bridge’, your book emphasizes the concept of ‘bridging’. Explain this difference and how this approach to depicting these individuals influenced the project.

MARY: The interviews and the knowledge and insights we gained from them are central to the book and what we as a team were able to do in the book. The idea of bridging I think is something that became more and more apparent to us as we grappled with the interviews, what the Nisei were telling us, and how they described their lives and views—they were not a “bridge” in the sense of being at some distinct points Japanese and at other distinct points American—but this was an on-going process of integrating dynamic elements of themselves and all the influences around them.

LISA: As Mary notes, the term “bridge” has been used extensively to describe Nisei – that is, they were expected to be a bridge between Japan and the US. Yet as we grappled with the ongoing negotiations over identity that the Nisei described in their narratives, we found the term bridge to be too static, like a piece of infrastructure or single line between two distinct points (i.e., Japan and the US). This approach also tends to reproduce ideas of assimilation and acculturation of immigrants, which we wanted to critique. Rather, we wanted a term that was better able to convey the contested, contingent, and processual aspects of identity formation for the Nisei. This term also has room to account for the Nisei’s own agency, suggesting a more layered and dynamic understanding of becoming Nisei.

– What information did you look for, but were you unable to find?

MARY: For me, since so much of the research that historians do is text-based, documents-based, I was frustrated in particular not to be able to find anything that was clearly and definitively written by the Japanese Language School principal, Masato Yamasaki, who emerged as a central figure in the community. We were able to piece together a lot about him from various sources, but I would have liked to have been able to hear directly from him. He is a compelling character to me, seems very admirable in so many ways—what made him tick??

LISA: Also, as we went back over the interview narratives, we wished we had more specific family background information. There was inconsistency in terms of what was remembered by each interviewee and having other written documents, perhaps in the Japanese Association archival materials, would have been great.

– When approaching a piece of ‘lost history’ like this, what are some considerations you feel are often overlooked?

LISA: This is an interesting question for a couple of reasons. First, I think that people often don’t consider the structural and systemic practices that have produced these erasures. It is not simply that development happened or that a building ended up in a state of disrepair. Rather, we wanted to emphasize that anti-Asian legislation, like the alien land laws in the 1920s, along with wartime incarceration produced such a landscape. In addition, settler colonial logics of land-taking and elimination are so ingrained into urban processes that they support this kind of collective amnesia.

MARY: I think something important that is overlooked is the fact that the people who lived in the past had lives that were as important, as varied, as joyful, as screwed up, as filled with hope, regret, fear, uncertainty, etc., etc. as our own lives. We see them as one-dimensional because we simplify and essentialize as we try to understand. In a way, the idea of “becoming Nisei,” and “bridging” tries to overcome that tendency towards one-dimensionality.

– What are some ways that the people of Tacoma can help preserve and promote Japanese American history?

MARY: First of all, we are very glad that people are as interested in the book as they are—it shows that people feel a deep connection to this place and, I think, a sense of responsibility to remember and honor what has gone before. Already on the UWT campus there are storyboards about the Tacoma Japanese Language School and the sculpture, “Maru” by Gerard Tsutakawa (who has family connections to the TJLS) that commemorate the school. But I’d love to see some plaques in the sidewalks along Broadway, for example, that commemorate some of the Japanese businesses that used to be in the city. Someone in one of the groups that we gave a presentation to suggested naming Court C “Yamasaki Way.” Something like that would be a nice memorial, but also a reminder to people to be aware of the layers of history and human contributions to the city that are no longer visible.

LISA: Also the work of activists like Tamiko Nimura is really important. She has created an app that takes you on a walking tour of Nihonmachi, for instance. This kind of real-time, embodied experience is important and can help promote action by others. So participating in such activities is one thing. We also hope to store these interviews and other materials with the UW Libraries and ideally have public access to them. We also hope this leads to an online presence that would let people add information, photos, and memories—being a part of that public history could be great as well. (We just need funding to get that website done!)

– What are you working on next?

MARY: There was so much information that ended up having to be left out of the book—Lisa and I are thinking about and talking about writing some academic articles that might utilize some of that material. Otherwise, for me personally, my future projects are in comparative Japanese and Indian nationalisms, so related, but a new extension of my thoughts on transnationalism.

LISA: Yes, as we continue to go back over all of the material we have, Mary and I have felt there is more to say, especially in relation to structural forgetting and logics of settler colonialism in the urban. We expect to have a few more articles on this material. Separately, I also am moving on to other work that extends my questions about the interplay of subjectivity and spatiality, but now through engagement with genomic research and notions of Seattle as a “collaborative” ecosystem for such work.

I want to thank Lisa and Mary for joining me and sharing their passion and their expertise on this fascinating piece of history. Becoming Nisei: Japanese American Urban Lives in Prewar Tacoma is published by the University of Washington Press and is available in independent bookstores and online.

UW Tacoma is the home of the Alpha Zeta Gamma chapter of Phi Alpha Theta (PAT), the National History Honor Society. Phi Alpha Theta national requirements state that students must have completed 18 quarter hours (12 semester hours) of college-level history courses (including those taken at other institutions) in which they earned a GPA of 3.1 or better, and carry a cumulative GPA of at least 3.0.

The Phi Alpha Theta honors society induction ceremony is held spring quarter at UW Tacoma. Members wear crimson stoles with their academic regalia at commencement. All UW Tacoma students are welcome at PAT meetings and service projects. For more information, contact your academic advisor or the Phi Alpha Theta faculty advisor, William Burghart.

Sixth Generation: 1989-1994 Toyota Truck

With a redesign that produced a longer wheelbase, Toyota rolled out the 3.0-liter V-6 engine to compete with the likes of Nissan, which already had V-6 trucks on the market. Thanks to the new V-6 engine, the Xtracab SR5 earned Motor Trend's 1989 Truck of the Year award. This award kicked off a string of awards for years. By 1991, small-scale production of the Toyota Truck started at the automaker's NUUMI plant in Fremont, California. This was the future production site of Toyota's new truck.


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T HIST 151 World History II 1500 to Present (5) I&S
Surveys the social, political, economic, and cultural history of the world from the end of the 15th century to the present.
View course details in MyPlan: T HIST 151

T HIST 200 American History I, 1607-1877 (5) I&S
Introduces, surveys, and analyzes American history from 1607-1877. Traces political, economic, social, and cultural trends of America's Colonial, Revolutionary, Early National, Antebellum, Civil War, and Reconstruction eras.
View course details in MyPlan: T HIST 200

T HIST 201 American History II, 1877-present (5) I&S
Introduces, surveys, and analyzes American history from 1877-present. Traces the major political, economic, social, and cultural trends of the American eras of Industrial Revolution, Progressivism, 1920s, FDR and the New Deal, World War II, Cold War, 1960s, and Reaganism to the present day.
View course details in MyPlan: T HIST 201

T HIST 202 Global Theories and Methods (5) VLPA/I&S
Familiarizes students with recent theories and methods toward understanding, interpreting, and analyzing interconnected causes and effect within the global sphere over extended periods of time.
View course details in MyPlan: T HIST 202

T HIST 203 Modern Europe in Global History (5) I&S
Examines modern European history in relationship to global history including cultural, intellectual, social, political, and economic interchanges between Europe, Asia, Africa, and the Americas since the European Renaissance.
View course details in MyPlan: T HIST 203

T HIST 212 American Military History I (5) I&S
Explores how early Americans conducted military campaigns from colonial times to 1939, looking at the impact of political, economic, cultural, historical, and technological factors shaping how America fought prior to WW II.
View course details in MyPlan: T HIST 212

T HIST 213 American Military History II (5) I&S
Explores how modern American conducts military campaigns from 1939 to the present looking at the impact of political, economic, cultural, historical, and technological factors shaping how America fought after WW II.
View course details in MyPlan: T HIST 213

T HIST 220 African American History 1619-1865 (5) I&S, DIV
Examines the social, political, economic and cultural history of African Americans in the United States from 1619-1865. Covers West African origins, the trans-Atlantic slave trade, slavery in the Americans, African American identities, and Black life in the Ante-bellum era.
View course details in MyPlan: T HIST 220

T HIST 221 African-American History 1865-1945 (5) I&S, DIV
Examines construction of the 'Jim Crow' system of racial segregation in the United States, from the Supreme Court's Plessy v. Ferguson decision legalizing segregation in 1896 to the court's Brown v. Board of Education decision overthrowing it in 1954. Examines African-American history, culture, and resistance to segregation in this period.
View course details in MyPlan: T HIST 221

T HIST 222 African-American History 1945-Present (5) I&S, DIV
Examines African-American history from 1945 to present. Focuses on African-American culture, racial identity, social consciousness, political thought, oppression and resistance, and the confluence of race, class, and gendering in shaping Black culture, politics, and society. Explores U.S. history through the lens of African Americans.
View course details in MyPlan: T HIST 222

T HIST 231 The Ancient Mediterranean World (5) I&S
Covers political, economic, social, cultural, and intellectual history of the Mediterranean geographic sphere from prehistory to the fall of the Roman Empire and the rise of the Byzantine Empire.
View course details in MyPlan: T HIST 231

T HIST 251 The Global Twentieth Century (5) VLPA/I&S
Surveys the interactive political, economic, cultural, and social developments that shaped the 20th-century world to the present.
View course details in MyPlan: T HIST 251

T HIST 260 Empires and Imperialism in World History (5) I&S
Examines world history of the Roman, Chinese, Mongol, Ottoman, and Modern European empires and imperialism from ancient to modern times. Themes include empire as historical pattern related to political, economics, and cultural spheres of influence and exchange.
View course details in MyPlan: T HIST 260

T HIST 270 Premodern East Asia (5) I&S
Examines premodern China, Japan, Korea and Vietnam from their earliest origins to the mid-eighteenth century. Considers social, cultural, political, economic and intellectual developments within a historical framework.
View course details in MyPlan: T HIST 270

T HIST 271 Modern East Asia (5) I&S
Examines Modern East Asia, focusing on China, Japan, Korea and Vietnam from the mid-eighteenth century to the present. Considers social, cultural, political, economic and intellectual developments within a historical framework.
View course details in MyPlan: T HIST 271

T HIST 280 German Cultural History (5) VLPA
Examines German cultural and social history from the Middle Ages to the post-unification era of the 21st century. Traces the broad development of German civilization through popular culture, literature, art, theater, film, music, and modern media.
View course details in MyPlan: T HIST 280

T HIST 290 A World History of Food (5) I&S
Examines a world history of food from the Agricultural Revolution to Industrialization including the Columbian Exchange and ecological imperialism with specific foci on key commodities like sugar. Connects human relationships to food with their historical and social, political, cultural, and economic meanings through time and place.
View course details in MyPlan: T HIST 290

T HIST 315 Industrialization and Reform (5) I&S
Examines the development of industrial capitalism and its effects on government, social institutions, workers and the environment, and on efforts to bring about reform. Provides a historical context for considering current debates about free markets versus planned or regulated economies.
View course details in MyPlan: T HIST 315

T HIST 320 Asian American History (5) I&S
Examines the histories, cultures, and literatures of Chinese, Japanese, Filipinos, Koreans, East Indians, and Southeast Asians in America from 1850 to 2009. Focuses on struggles of individual groups confronting widespread hostility and poverty. Explores how they established viable communities that continue to flourish to the third, fourth, and fifth generations.
View course details in MyPlan: T HIST 320

T HIST 322 American Labor Since the Civil War (5) I&S
Provides a history of workers and labor institutions from the era of industrialization to the post-industrial era, focusing on labor-management conflict, the rise and fall of unions, and on the role of government, the media, and other forces in determining events. Concludes with an assessment of labor today.
View course details in MyPlan: T HIST 322

T HIST 333 Early American Music, Art, Literature, and Theater (5) VLPA
Examines the cultural life of Americans from Colonial times to the eve of the Civil War. Includes topics such as Anglo/Celtic and Afro folk and church music, landscape and genre painting, regional and frontier literature, newspaper humor, popular culture, circus, Chautauqua, and minstrel shows.
View course details in MyPlan: T HIST 333

T HIST 336 Black, Labor, and Protest Music in Historical Perspective (5) VLPA/I&S
Presents distinctive musical traditions of African-American, labor and protest movements. Uses folk and protest music as a way to access and understand submerged elements of the American experience that are often ignored or lost to history. Reviews folk traditions embodied in American popular culture.
View course details in MyPlan: T HIST 336

T HIST 340 History of United States-American Indian Relations (5) I&S
Examines the interrelations between Native Americans and European immigrants since 1500. Explores conflicts and problems in Indian-White relations in a historical context. Includes an analysis of Indian policy and major legislation, with a special focus given to the consequences generated for contemporary Indian education and religion.
View course details in MyPlan: T HIST 340

T HIST 341 African-American History (5) I&S
Considers some of the major themes and periods in African-American history, as well as the history and present-day manifestations of racial oppression and stereotyping in American life. Includes history texts, classics of African-American literature, films and music, and intensive classroom discussion.
View course details in MyPlan: T HIST 341

T HIST 343 Vietnam and the 1960s (5) I&S
Examines the dissent and radicalism of the 1960s stemming from the Vietnam War, as well as civil rights and other causes. Explores various political questions pertinent to the 1960s through readings, films, music, and intensive discussion.
View course details in MyPlan: T HIST 343

T HIST 349 Minorities and Higher Education in American History (5) I&S
Analyzes materials pertaining to the impact of socio-economic, cultural, racial, ethnic, and gender diversity in the American educational system. Studies the development of U.S. policies which both historically excluded and included minorities, women, and the economically disadvantaged population in America.
View course details in MyPlan: T HIST 349

T HIST 350 Modern Germany Since 1848 (5) I&S
Explores the history of the modern German nation state from the nineteenth century to the present the rise of nationalism and the 1848 Revolution the Bismark era, Imperial Germany, World War I, the Weimar Republic, the Nazi Regime, World War II, divided Germany, the post-war era, reunification, and Germany today.
View course details in MyPlan: T HIST 350

T HIST 356 History of Christianity (5) I&S
Examines Christian religion, including doctrine, practice, and church organization, from the time of Jesus Christ to the present, examining the religion's influence on culture, politics, and society.
View course details in MyPlan: T HIST 356

T HIST 363 Making of Russia (5) I&S
Considers historical, social, and cultural forces creating the Russian Empire. Examines Russia's Kievan past, Mongol era, rise of Moscow, the country's transformation under Peter the Great and his heirs, and social and political movements that resulted in the Tsarist system's collapse. Films, music, and slides supplement lectures and discussions.
View course details in MyPlan: T HIST 363

T HIST 364 Modern Russia (5) I&S
Explores Russia from Nicholas II through the Soviet era to contemporary Russia.
View course details in MyPlan: T HIST 364

T HIST 365 Europe in the Twentieth Century (5) I&S
Examines major political, social, and cultural developments in twentieth century Europe. Explores the two world wars, fascism and communism as alternatives to parliamentary democracy, the Cold War, and the post-war integration of Europe, with the support of primary sources including cultural artifacts.
View course details in MyPlan: T HIST 365

T HIST 366 Europe in the Twenty-First Century (5) I&S
Investigates the socioeconomic, environmental, political, and cultural conditions characterizing European integration since 1993. Analyses causal factors and normative policies through readings of primary and secondary sources with an interdisciplinary focus on the history, structures, initiatives, and global relations of the EU.
View course details in MyPlan: T HIST 366

T HIST 372 Comparative Perspectives on East Asian and Latin American Development (5) I&S
Focuses on two important regions of the world, broadly comparing historical, cultural, and social experiences and relating these differences in experiences in specific Pacific Rim and Latin American countries. Examines how internal dynamics of these regions has shaped their standing in the world economy despite external political and economic constraints.
View course details in MyPlan: T HIST 372

T HIST 375 British Empire (5) I&S
Examines origins, expansion, and decline of British imperialism at home and abroad. Analyzes culture, society, economics, and politics of British imperialism using scholarly, popular, and primary sources from imperialists, anti-imperialists, colonists, and the colonized. Prerequisite: any 100- or 200-level T HIST course.
View course details in MyPlan: T HIST 375

T HIST 377 Art of the Americas (5) VLPA
The art of the United States, Mexico, and Canada is united by common historical events. Explores the painting, sculpture, and architecture of these three countries in the context of indigenous cultures, conquest and colonization, revolution, independence, and the search for national identity.
View course details in MyPlan: T HIST 377

T HIST 378 American Architecture (5) VLPA
Examines the architecture of the United States from early Native American structures to late twentieth-century buildings. Focuses on issues concerning style, technology, regionalism, functions, and reform to address the diverse forces that have shaped and continue to shape American architecture.
View course details in MyPlan: T HIST 378

T HIST 379 Modern Architecture (5) VLPA
Examines twentieth-century architecture and its origins. Focuses on issues concerning style, technology, urbanism, regionalism, function, and reform to address the diverse forces that have shaped modern architecture.
View course details in MyPlan: T HIST 379

T HIST 380 History Methods Research and Writing Seminar (5)
Covers developing a thesis, designing an outline, doing preliminary research, and preparing a history senior paper proposal with annotated bibliography and literature review. Includes required field trips to archival repositories.
View course details in MyPlan: T HIST 380

T HIST 385 Russian Civilization (5) VLPA/I&S
Examines aspects of Russian culture from the perspective of individual Russian cultural figures. Includes: Andrei Rublev and Russian Orthodoxy the Age of Pushkin Turgenev and the Populist Tradition Chaikovsky and the Development of a Russian National Music the Cinema of Eisenstein and Socialist Realism from Gorky to Rybakov.
View course details in MyPlan: T HIST 385

T HIST 410 Early American Politics, Constitution, and Law (5, max. 10) I&S
Explores American political history from a variety of perspectives. Topics vary, including the American Revolution, Constitution and Bill of Rights, political party systems, Jacksonian democracy, nationalism and sectionalism, the Civil War and American laws and lawyers.
View course details in MyPlan: T HIST 410

T HIST 411 History of Religion in America (5) I&S
Examines the significance of religion in American society from European colonization to the twentieth century. Topics include Puritanism, revivalism, women, slavery, ethnicity and immigration, and pluralism.
View course details in MyPlan: T HIST 411

T HIST 413 Civil Rights, Civil Liberties (5, max. 10) I&S
Examines the historic personal and community rights, or lack thereof, embodied in the Constitution and Bill of Rights. Focuses on the history of efforts to preserve, extend or undermine these rights and on the status of these rights today. May be repeated for credit with instructor's approval.
View course details in MyPlan: T HIST 413

T HIST 416 Life and Thought: Martin Luther King, Malcolm X, and Angela Davis (5) I&S, DIV
Explores the experiences and thinking of three well-known leaders of African-American protest in the 1960s. Interprets black radicalism in that era and the relationship of these three analysts and activists to their times and to the present.
View course details in MyPlan: T HIST 416

T HIST 417 United States History 1945-Present (5) I&S, DIV
Examines U. S. history from 1945 to present. Examines the social, political, and economic history of the nation. Focuses on the role of culture, social consciousness, political thought, and the confluence of race, class, and gender in shaping U.S. history. Focuses on new developments in American life.
View course details in MyPlan: T HIST 417

T HIST 420 African-American Religious History (5) I&S, DIV
Examines African-American religious practices from slavery to present. Focuses on the role of religion in African-American culture, racial identify, social consciousness, political thought, oppression and resistance, and the confluence of race, class, and gender in shaping Christianity, Islam, and traditional forms of African worship.
View course details in MyPlan: T HIST 420

T HIST 430 Introduction to Public History (5) VLPA/I&S
Introduces students to the major issues and questions addressed by historians who work in the public sphere. Includes the interpretation of history, the role of history in popular culture, issues and aims in exhibiting history, the politics of public history, and historic preservation. Prerequisite: any T HIST course.
View course details in MyPlan: T HIST 430

T HIST 437 Doing Community History (5, max. 10) I&S
Involves the student in researching the history of the community, with particular focus on ethnic diversity. Includes primary research in libraries interviewing residents transcribing/editing oral memoirs and writing history. Covers research skills, as well as sensitivity to community values and concerns. May be repeated with instructor's permission.
View course details in MyPlan: T HIST 437

T HIST 440 Black Labor in America (5) I&S, DIV
Provides an overview and a detailed consideration of the contributions of the black working class to the making of America. Examines historic racial-economic barriers which have held back development of African-American communities, and the continuing causes and possible solutions to the economic crisis affecting black working people today.
View course details in MyPlan: T HIST 440

T HIST 441 Black Freedom Movement in Perspective (5) I&S, DIV
Explores the historical roots and present-day manifestations of movements against racial oppression and for empowerment in the African-American community, focusing heavily on the period since the 1950s. Includes films, music, and popular as well as academic literature.
View course details in MyPlan: T HIST 441

T HIST 442 History of African American Education (5) I&S
Explores the historical roots and present-day manifestations of movements against racial oppression and for empowerment in the African-American community, focusing heavily on the period since the 1950s. Sources include films, music, and popular as well as academic literature.
View course details in MyPlan: T HIST 442

T HIST 444 The Pacific Northwest (5) I&S
Examines the history and society of the Pacific Northwest - that region encompassing modern Washington, Oregon, Idaho, western Montana, British Columbia, and Alaska. Includes topics such as native peoples, exploration and settlement, natural resources, economic development, government, folk culture, ethnicity, and modern problems.
View course details in MyPlan: T HIST 444

T HIST 445 History of Tacoma (5) I&S
Surveys the history and fabric of Washington state's second largest urban center. Topics include early settlements, Tacoma as the Pacific terminus of the Northern Pacific Railroad, commercial and social currents, ethnic and political struggle as recurring forces, and the development of regional institutions, local governments, and locally based corporations. Emphasizes architecture, urban planning and growth, and the built environment of Tacoma.
View course details in MyPlan: T HIST 445

T HIST 451 Renaissance Europe (5) I&S
Development of Renaissance humanism and its influence on culture, politics, and society in fourteenth-, fifteenth-, and sixteenth-century Europe and beyond.
View course details in MyPlan: T HIST 451

T HIST 452 Art, Culture, and History of the Eternal City (12) VLPA/I&S
Uses Rome as a laboratory to understand the role of art, history, and urbanism in the development of Western culture. Addresses the many facets of the cultural development of Rome and Italy, including geography, history, urban design, art, and architecture. Research-based and includes extensive fieldwork.
View course details in MyPlan: T HIST 452

T HIST 456 North American Regions I&S (5, max. 10) I&S
Examines the various regions of North America in comparative fashion. Topics may include the characteristics of the New England, Southern, frontier, Mississippi Valley, Canadian, Pacific Northwestern, and Southwestern regions of North America.
View course details in MyPlan: T HIST 456

T HIST 457 Anti-Semitism and the Holocaust (5) I&S
Historical, cultural, psychological, philosophical, and artistic approaches to understanding the Holocaust, including an examination of the role of anti-Semitism, Nazism, eugenics, bureaucracy, technology, attitudes and participation of "ordinary Germans," and the role of army and police units in its formation and execution. Explores implications of the Holocaust for contemporary life.
View course details in MyPlan: T HIST 457

T HIST 462 History of Vietnam (5) I&S
Examines Vietnamese history, culture, and society from the earliest days through the 1980s.
View course details in MyPlan: T HIST 462

T HIST 463 Premodern Japan (5) I&S
Explores how, from its prehistory to the 17th century, Japan has blended native traditions with continental Chinese influences to create its own civilization. Examines the political, economic, social, and intellectual factors that have shaped Japan in the premodern age. Provides a background to understanding the development of modern Japan.
View course details in MyPlan: T HIST 463

T HIST 464 Modern China (5) I&S
Traces the 19th and 20th century Chinese experience through China's struggles to modernize, its revolutionary experience, and the establishment and continuation of communist rule. Examines China's transformation from imperial rule to "People's Republic" by exploring political and economic change, and social, cultural, and intellectual change in an historical framework.
View course details in MyPlan: T HIST 464

T HIST 465 Modern Japan (5) I&S
Traces the transformation of Japan from a feudal country under Tokugawa military rule in the 19th century to an economic super-power in the 20th century. In addition to historical and political issues, addresses social and cultural topics, as will the clash of traditional Japan with the modern, industrialized West.
View course details in MyPlan: T HIST 465

T HIST 466 Modern Korea (5) I&S
Traces Korea's transition from traditional Asian state to modern nation emerging on the world economic scene. Explores how, because of its geographic location, Korea has suffered chaotic change in the modern period. Examines Korean society, culture, and politics, looking at Korea's period as a Japanese colony, the division of Korea, the Korean war, and recent developments.
View course details in MyPlan: T HIST 466

T HIST 467 Siberia and the Russian Far East (5) I&S
Examines the geography and natural resources, peoples, history, literature, culture, and economic development of Siberia and the Russian Far East from their beginnings to the present day.
View course details in MyPlan: T HIST 467

T HIST 470 The Material World: Art and Artifacts (5/7) VLPA
Examines material culture created and used by humans to cope with the physical world. Employs interdisciplinary methods drawing from art history, historical archaeology, anthropology, and museum studies. Uses hands-on study of everyday objects as a means to understand the world around us. Prerequisite: any T HIST course.
View course details in MyPlan: T HIST 470

T HIST 474 Imperial China (5) I&S
Surveys the social, political, economic, and intellectual history of Imperial China from the earliest times to the 17th century. Provides a background to understanding the development of Asia in general and modern China in particular.
View course details in MyPlan: T HIST 474

T HIST 475 Twentieth-Century Britain (5) I&S
Examines twentieth century British history, interpreting Britain's global role in the nineteenth century, its decline in the twentieth, and its re-emergence as a Western leader in the twenty-first century . Covers history from the Boer Wars to the 7/7 London bombings. Focuses on Britain in two world wars, the decline of British imperialism, and the effects of both in a globalized world.
View course details in MyPlan: T HIST 475

T HIST 477 Reformation and Counter-Reformation Europe (5) VLPA
Explores the Reformation and Counter Reformation and their impact on institutions, governments, and individuals from the 16th through the 17th centuries. Examines politics, religion, culture, and intellectual thought in a socioeconomic context. Considers changing emphases, such as Papal Rome, the European courts, and the Dutch Republic.
View course details in MyPlan: T HIST 477

T HIST 478 Europe in the Nineteenth Century (5) VLPA
Examine major political, social, and cultural developments in nineteenth century Europe, such as the Industrial Revolution, class struggle, nationalism, political freedom, and military conflicts. Emphasizes the analysis of social, economic, and political conditions as key influences on cultural production and its expression of the experience of modernity.
View course details in MyPlan: T HIST 478

T HIST 479 Modern European Culture (5) VLPA
Surveys the history of modern European culture from 1870 through 1945. Explores the intersection between the arts, popular culture, intellectual thought, and politics with a focus on individual representatives of the avant-garde.
View course details in MyPlan: T HIST 479

T HIST 480 Eastern Europe in Transition, 1940-2000 (5)
Examines the peoples and nations of Eastern Europe in times of fundamental change. Includes the impact of the Second World War, the imposition of Stalinism, attempts at liberalization in Hungary and Czechoslovakia, transformation associated with the Gorbachev era, and the region's economic, social, and political future.
View course details in MyPlan: T HIST 480

T HIST 484 The Pacific War (5) I&S
Traces the Pacific War, examining the emergence of modern Japan, the sources of conflict in Asia and between Japan and the U.S., the battles that comprised the war, the home fronts of the involved nations and the war's end, and its impact on Asia and the world.
View course details in MyPlan: T HIST 484

T HIST 486 Contemporary Chinese Culture and Society (5) I&S
Examines cultural life in China since the founding of the People's Republic of China in 1949. Includes political rituals (e.g., struggle sessions) socialist policies (e.g., household registrations, work units) post-Mao social classes and consumerism and family relations and cultural practices such as gift-giving and relationship building.
View course details in MyPlan: T HIST 486

T HIST 487 Technology in the Modern World (5) I&S
Examines social, cultural, and historical studies of the role of technology in the modern world. Themes include the unintended consequences of new technologies the relationship between technology and the environment production and consumption and technology's role in forming divisions along lines of race, class, and gender.
View course details in MyPlan: T HIST 487

T HIST 488 History of Urbanization and the Environment (5) I&S
Addresses the environmental impact of ancient, medieval, and modern cities. Includes the evolution of urban infrastructure and relations between city and countryside.
View course details in MyPlan: T HIST 488

T HIST 490 Medieval Technology (5) I&S
Examines the nuts and bolts of medieval technology and urban life while exploring larger themes of the gendering of labor, the rebirth of cities, the uneasy relationship to Islamic civilization, and the destruction of the natural world.
View course details in MyPlan: T HIST 490

T HIST 491 Advanced Topics in the Ancient and Medieval Mediterranean World (5, max. 10) I&S
Explores critically select topics in ancient and medieval Mediterranean studies with an emphasis on new and emerging perspectives and scholarship if the field.
View course details in MyPlan: T HIST 491

T HIST 495 The Metropolis (5, max. 10) I&S
Examines the problems and opportunities associated with the development of the metropolis. Focuses on the 20th century, and the individual city selected changes, depending on quarter. Begins with an examination of such general issues associated with large cities as economic base, transport, social conditions, culture, and government, moves on to consider in detail one city.
View course details in MyPlan: T HIST 495

T HIST 497 Senior Thesis (5)
Includes a significant independent research project planned and carried out by the student under the direction of a faculty member on a significant scholarly topic selected by the student in consultation with faculty. Prerequisite: TIAS 380 and approval of thesis proposal.
View course details in MyPlan: T HIST 497

T HIST 498 History Capstone (5) I&S
Emphasizes analysis of methodological issues and developing students' research and writing skills in history. Includes a significant independent research project planned and carried out by the student to complete senior thesis and portfolio requirements, including the oral presentation. Prerequisite: minimum grade of 2.0 in either T HIST 380 or TIAS 380.
View course details in MyPlan: T HIST 498

The truth about Tacoma: 5 things you might not know

In 1909, this Tacoma promotion was displayed at the Alaska Yukon Pacific Exposition in Seattle.

In Seattle, a city where most people come from somewhere else, origin stories make for reliable cocktail chatter. The California expats have it easy. Everyone’s been to the Golden State, and most people have at least one charming anecdote about excursions to Golden Gate or the Walk of Fame. Likewise, the émigrés from small town America. Everyone loves a good fish-out-of-water story.

But if you’re from a place like Tacoma, which falls somewhere between destination and corn-fed Heartland crossroads, things can get downright sociological. No one has a Tacoma vacation story, and no one really believes Seattle is that big a culture shock for a City of Destiny native. So Tacoma natives get bigger, deeper questions: What is it like to grow up in Tacoma? How does Tacoma see itself? What does Tacoma aspire to be?

Heady stuff for a cocktail party.

I’d like to think I’m qualified to answer. I was weaned on MSM Deli sandwiches and Neko Case albums, and have fallen into Commencement Bay on no fewer than two occasions. Tacoma is a place of totemic comfort for me: I know the city blocks, and notice when they change. I feel a little wistful when a small business closes, even if it’s one I didn’t like. I have an extensive history with Tacoma’s politics and civic life. Tacoma is a place I love and I think about it often.

Here are five things you should know about the singular culture and politics of my hometown, and why I believe that Tacoma, despite all the jokes and put downs, is a very compelling place:

I was raised in the North End, which gives me a very specific “Tacoma experience” that is far from universal. Tacoma’s reputation as a scrappy port city has legitimacy. The Port of Tacoma and Joint Base Lewis McChord are critical economic forces, and major sources of blue-collar employment. North of Sixth Avenue – the recently rejuvenated nightlife and small business core – Tacoma is a very different place.

North Enders are largely white-collar, a mix of industrial managers, attorneys, engineers and college professors from the neighboring University of Puget Sound. The North End isn’t necessarily rich, but it wouldn’t be one bit out of place in Seattle. The story is similar in the West End of town, out toward the Narrows Bridge, and also in Northeast Tacoma, a bluffside view neighborhood adjacent to Federal Way.

When you move south of Sixth Avenue, where the easy majority of Tacomans reside, life suddenly becomes much different. This is where the working-class folks make their homes – the service industry workers, crane operators and longshoremen. That is, if they live in the city. Poverty rates in this part of town are 60 percent above the state average unemployment rates are 40 percent above.

On average, Tacomans south of South 19th Street live on less than half as much as North Enders. (See the map below. Source: American Community Survey, 2006-2010.)

The average North Ender subsists on $40,022 a year, a per-capita income comparable to well-off cities like Seattle. Average income for residents of the suburban West End, Northeast Tacoma and the condo-dwellers of Downtown are comparable. Move south, though, and incomes fall by half. The Hilltop, once a predominantly black, working-class neighborhood, has recently undergone considerable gentrification. But despite the craft cocktail shops and hipster bars, per-capita income there is under $16,000, less than 50 percent above the federal poverty line for an individual.

In Seattle terms, the difference between North Tacoma and the South End is roughly the difference between Ballard and the Rainier Valley. Incomes on the Hilltop are so low that there’s not really even a Seattle analogue. It’s a stark divide, and one that underscores a truth about life in the Gritty City: The level of “grit” varies a hell of a lot depending on your address.

2. That divide? It’s not just socioeconomic it’s cultural and political too.

As far as politics go, Tacoma is a one-party town. In 2012, Barack Obama defeated Mitt Romney by a lopsided margin of 67 percent to 30 percent. While that’s nowhere near the Seattle split (83 percent to 14 percent), it’s enough to ensure that there’s no foothold for Republicans. They can win County Council races outside of the city, and an occasional non-partisan battle, but the GOP is effectively shut out of most contests

In my recent coverage of Seattle, I argued that partisanship is oftentimes a poor proxy for ideology. This is even truer in Tacoma than King County. Look at social issue votes, particularly ones like same-sex marriage where class and education are nearly as important as political partisanship.

The top map below shows results from the 2012 Presidential election on the bottom map are the results for Referendum 74, which affirmed marriage rights for same-sex couples. Dark blue areas in the top map show Obama support on the bottom map, dark blue represents support for same-sex marriage.

The map on the left shows Obama vs. Romney (blue vs. red) results. The righthand map shows Referendum 74 Approved vs. Rejected (blue vs. red). Source: Precinct results, 2012 General Election, Pierce County Auditor

As you can see, there’s a lot more red on the bottom (same-sex marriage) map. That’s because there’s a lot more same-sex opponents in Tacoma than there are Republicans: Mitt Romney received 30 percent of Tacoma’s vote, but 42 percent of voters rejected gay marriage.

Now take a look at this map below, which compares Obama’s performance to Referendum 74’s. The darker the red, the more Obama outperformed R-74. There are also some blue precincts, where same-sex marriage actually outperformed the Democratic ticket.

Referendum 74 vs. Barack Obama: Red precincts delivered stronger
margins to Obama blue precincts delivered stronger margins to same-sex marriage.

Notice the pattern? In the relatively affluent North End, support for same-sex marriage was nearly at parity with support for Obama. However, in the more working class South and East there was considerable dissent among Democratic voters on the issue. In one East Tacoma precinct, Obama won by 44 percentage points, while same-sex marriage lost by 12. At least 39 percent of Obama voters in that precinct did not vote for same-sex marriage!

Tacoma may be staunchly Democratic, but it is not politically homogenous. Just as the city is divided economically, so it is also divided along cultural lines. North of Sixth Avenue, affluent liberals emphasize social justice and a secular vision of liberalism. South of Sixth Avenue, the Dem base – more racially diverse, churched and economically disadvantaged – tilts left on social welfare issues, and displays some big ambivalence on cultural issues.

3. Tacoma is politically polite … usually.

Like many cities, Tacoma has a bit of a checkered political past. In 1951, a state legislative committee found “widespread vice and official corruption.” The resulting reforms cleaned up Tacoma politics significantly, but isolated events continued to foster citizen distrust. In 1986, the long-term County Auditor Dick Greco was successfully prosecuted for accepting kickbacks. In 2003, Tacoma Police Chief David Brame killed his wife in a murder-suicide. The ensuing revelations spurred the resignation of the City Manager and an FBI probe that ensnared officials in the Tacoma Police Department, local government and the business community. Ten years later, the Brame incident still echoes politically, and institutional trust remains tenuous.

Considering that tenuous trust, it’s truly impressive how pleasant Tacoma civic life is. Nowadays, political races are remarkably cordial. Negative campaigns are uncommon. Municipal races are often non-competitive or attract only token opposition. Last year, incumbent Mayor Marilyn Strickland ran unopposed despite the fact that voters, in the same election and by a resounding margin, defeated Proposition 1, an emergency road repair levy, which had been advanced by Strickland and other elected officials. Dissatisfaction in Tacoma is common, but anger is relatively unusual, and politically organized anger downright rare. In small-city politics, familiarity can breed contempt, but it also keeps things relatively genial.

Tacoma’s erstwhile political machine, which used to thrive in union-heavy South Tacoma, has also largely been dismantled. The city has had districted elections for a long time, but it doesn’t exhibit any symptoms of parochial ward politics. In fact, most voters probably couldn’t identify their City Council district if they tried. Other than occasional kerfuffles over underserved areas, such as with the recent link light rail expansion vote, Tacoma’s political conflicts rarely seem like zero-sum resource fights.

This is not to say that Tacomans are politically content. In addition to the heavy rejection of the recent road repair measure, the Tacoma metro area recently saw the failure of two transit measures, although the city itself approved both by modest margins. Tacomans are certainly dissatisfied with the state of local infrastructure (especially roads), but they aren’t champing at the bit to levy additional taxes as a way to fix the problem. This feeling has occasionally extended to public servants. Long-brewing dissatisfaction with the School Board relegated one then-incumbent school board member to fourth-place in the 2009 Primary election. That’s the sort of disappointing finish that usually follows an indictment.

But Tacoma politics are generally polite incumbents rarely break a sweat. There are several possible interpretations for this surprising friendliness. One is that Tacoma is attitudinally gentrifying toward the sort of hyper-dialectical “Seattle process,” deferring change until we achieve either universal satisfaction or universal exhaustion. Another interpretation is that Tacomans don’t mind a little grit. In fact, when it comes to infrastructure, a little dissatisfaction is perfectly fine.

This is probably a little fanciful, but it’s also true: Tacomans don’t like potholes, but they also resent the implication that their city requires a massive overhaul. Locals don’t want Tacoma to be a world-class urban utopia if “world-class urban utopia” looks anything like South Lake Union. This attitude means the city’s political class gets treated with a bit of deference. Politicians aren’t expected to exude focus group-tested gloss. They’re expected to be approachable and grounded. In a town that struggles with institutional trust, personal trust is a valuable and necessary commodity. That lends Tacoma politics a distinctly small-city feel.

4. Tacoma has a branding problem.

But there remains a lingering sense that Tacoma is a place no one would choose. Tacoma doesn’t rank toward the top of any objective measures. Sure, we’ve been called America’s most sexually healthy city, its gayest, and, for those who appreciate a little adversity, its most stressed. But a city of 200,000 will inevitably rack up a few of these superlatives over the years.

The other empirics are more mixed: Tacoma is relatively affordable, but not exceptionally so. Our business climate is decent, but operating costs, especially licensing fees, aren’t that low. Tacoma is reasonably walkable and pretty diverse. At Tacoma’s best, it is regionally competitive on the objective metrics. Regionally competitive is nothing to be ashamed of, but it’s not much to sell a city on. Tacoma knows this, and has struggled to differentiate itself.

The city has assets, some tangible and others less so: An enviable waterfront with, arguably, more potential than any other in the region a Downtown that boasts a unique blend of vintage buildings and shiny new museums civic and cultural communities that are inclusive and enthusiastic, without the nasty tendency to eat their own a cooperative small business climate.

Articulating these assets is easy. Turning them into a cohesive municipal identity is where the city has stumbled over the years. If Tacoma wants to shake its second-city branding doldrums, it needs a cohesive identity. It needs a civic vision.

5. Tacoma has a strong sense of self.

So far, I’ve painted a pretty dissonant picture of my hometown. It’s a city of stark contrasts in income and political ideology. A city proud of its ongoing renaissance, but wary of becoming polished beyond recognition. A city whose regional branding is a mess, but one that embraces that very messiness.

I’m an analyst by trade, but when spreadsheets and numbers fail, sometimes the best path to insight is a few drinks and a long walk. So, in that spirit, I started my Friday night at the venerable Parkway Tavern, a great place to meet both Tacoma’s movers and shakers, and everyone you went to high school with. From there, I took a boozy walk along Sixth Avenue, and wound up at Bertolino Bros., Tacoma’s 24-hour sit-down coffee shop.

Bertolino’s is one of the best places to experience a microcosm of Tacoma. At 11pm, it’s a mix of students, shift workers, laborers, white collar workers with sleeping problems and twenty-somethings. I’d hoped that hanging out there would provide an epiphany, some sort of pure, distilled “essence of Tacoma” that’s eluded the city’s marketers and boosters.

Two hours in, and with a lower blood-alcohol level, I realized that trying to reduce Tacoma to one “essence” is absurd. What defines a city is its lived feeling or, in the case of Tacoma, perhaps its lived-in feeling. After a year in Seattle, I have certainly found comfortable local joints with eclectic casts of characters. I haven’t, however, found any place that so effectively brings together all cross-sections of the population the way that many Tacoma institutions do.

Tacoma may have a branding problem, but it doesn’t have a character problem. The city has a strong sense of itself: a proud Second City, divided but not balkanized, gritty but hospitable, off-kilter without pretense. It’s a lived-in, comfortable place brimming with nuance and quirks unlike any other in Puget Sound.

That profile may be a little too wordy for pithy cocktail chatter or advertising brochures, but it makes for an interesting, distinct community, one that continues to fascinate, even for those of us who have called Tacoma our hometown for a lifetime.

Watch the video: Aλικιανός - Ιστορική Γέφυρα Κερίτη Ιάρδανου ποταμού 18-2-2019 (July 2022).


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